Amphetamines Have Long-Term Effects on Adolescent Brain, Study Finds


A new study published in the journal Neuroscience finds that rats given regular doses of amphetamines during adolescence have brain and behavioral changes in adulthood. When translated into humans, this study suggests that young people using amphetamines may have changes in memory and attention well into their thirties.

Release →

Parallels between rat and human development make rats a worthy model for the study of human drug addiction.
Parallels between rat and human development make rats a worthy model for the study of human drug addiction.

“Along with other studies, this shows pretty clear evidence that drug use during adolescence, a time when the brain is still developing, has extremely long-lasting consequences that go far beyond the last drug exposure,” said University of Illinois psychology professor Joshua Gulley, who led the new research.



Kang, K. Paul, E.R. Hankosky, C.L. Cox, J.M. Gulley, D1 receptor-mediated inhibition of medial prefrontal cortex neurons is disrupted in adult rats exposed to amphetamine in adolescence, Neuroscience, Volume 324, 2 June 2016, Pages 40-49, ISSN 0306-4522. (Abstract)


  1. Is that why most of the young people checking into drug and alcohol treatment centers were Ritalin and Vyvance kids ?

    All these people in the medical community who write these papers like to use the word “abuse” instead of use to protect their colleges in the business of drugging school kids to keep the still and quite.

    Maybe there is a special part of the brain that refuses to get damaged if your the kid with the valid prescription “using” it every day instead of buying a few from a classmate who illegally selling and “abusing” them.

    Alot of people like to blame pain medication for the opiate addiction ‘epidemic’ but pain medication has been around for a long time. What hasn’t been around for a long time is a generation children drugged in school.

    These kids who were drugged in school are showing up in treatment centers for addiction cause there abilty to regulate emotion was screw up by a childhood of high on ADHD pills every morning for school and that nasty crash every afternoon.

    The majority of young people checking into treatment centers for addictions out of the 100s I have seen were started on ADHD drugs for school, go to any center or young persons 12 step AA / NA group and start asking if anyone doesn’t believe me.

    *Maybe* someday the psychiatric industry will take responsibility for the harm they did to an entire generation but that will be a cold day in hell right ?

    I have been reading mental health stuff for years and have never heard of an apology from the psycho pharma industry for any of the horrific stuff they have been busted for. Just pay little bit of profit as a fine and eff U everyone we harmed and killed.

    Report comment

    • Correction: I read about an apology once before

      Sunday 2 September 2012 , Gruenenthal Group’s CRO has apologized to mothers who took Thalidomide in the 1950s and 1960s and gave birth to children with congenital birth defects. Exactly 50 years ago today, Thalidomide was pulled off the market.

      Report comment

    • “Maybe there is a special part of the brain that refuses to get damaged if your the kid with the valid prescription “using” it every day instead of buying a few from a classmate who illegally selling and “abusing” them.”

      Interesting idea and nice bit of irony.

      I ask the rhetorical question, how many 8 year olds can either afford to, have the contacts, or want to, buy enough speed to get high every day for the next decade?

      Rhetorical answer: not many but the psyche/drug/school complext does it regularly to a rather large proportion of children. Mass drugging, mass poisoning and mass psychologial and phsysical damage.

      Forget your chemtrail/floride conspiracies, this is real.

      Report comment

  2. This should not surprise anyone. It sounds like neurological down-regulation of dopamine receptors, which Peter Breggin was talking about back in the early 1990s, and which has been known to happen from substance abuse research long before that. It is the mechanism by which we develop tolerance and also long-term withdrawal syndromes that last beyond when the drugs leave your system. Of course, no one making money off this kind of venture wants these dots to be connected, but there is nothing new about this revelation.

    —- Steve

    Report comment

      • Given the well orchestrated outpouring of psych drugs, first the new stimulants and SSRI antidepressants, both known to cause “psychosis” and “mania.” Then come the newly patented “atypical antipsychotics,” used to treat the adverse effects of the first group of drugs. All to the tune of millions of humans dead, but big profits for the psycho / pharmaceutical industries. I’d say it’s a well planned out, and well marketed murder fest, by the global pharmaceutical industry.

        It sure is looking like the globalists don’t actually have humanity’s best interest at heart. Let’s give all the little children amphetamines, what kind of psychopathic minds dreamt this up? And what is the medical industry thinking? $$$$$$$$ STOP DRUGGING THE CHILDREN, DOCTORS!

        Report comment

  3. A few years ago I was a local University in the Michigan. I was an older student and hadnt been to school in 8 years. I was also in addict. To my surprise adderral was rampant on campus. People showing up to study groups geeked out and conversations about it like it was tiddlywinks. I even had a guy try to sell me it right in front of my class?! Needless, to say this was really bad for me because my drug of choice was amphetamines.

    ADHD is basically a way for a parent to increase the productivity of an average child. Bottom line-its a study drug and the dx is an excuse. Lets get honest. If all these kids have a “chemical imbalanced’ ADHD brain then why are they selling the meds? It makes no sense. And wouldnt there be a bunch of distracted under achievers failing out of school if all they do is sell their meds?

    Report comment